What is it about?

The paradoxical effects of reward and aversion with abused drugs may interact to produce drug addiction, which is the so-called paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs. However, there is no research examining how the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) regulates morphine’s paradoxical effect of reward and aversion. The present study addresses this issue, utilizing a high concentration of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) via injections to destroy the VTA or the PAG.

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Why is it important?

The VTA’s involvement in morphine-induced CTA aversion and CPP reward supports the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs. Furthermore, the findings offer contributions to drugs addiction.


Using the examinations of the abused drug's reward and aversion in brain mechanisms help us to develop novel pharmacological treatments in the future.

Professor Andrew C.W. Huang
Fo Guang University

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This page is a summary of: Involvement of the ventral tegmental area but not periaqueductal gray matter in the paradoxical rewarding and aversive effects of morphine., Behavioral Neuroscience, December 2021, American Psychological Association (APA),
DOI: 10.1037/bne0000483.
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