What is it about?

Chronic pain is a public health crisis that is made worse by racism. The Racism ExpoSure and Trauma AccumulatiOn PeRpetuate PAin InequiTIes – AdVocating for ChangE (RESTORATIVE) model integrates the models of racism and pain. The RESTORATIVE model demonstrates how the shared contribution of trauma symptoms maintains chronic pain for racialized groups in the United States.

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Why is it important?

Inequities in pain experience, assessment, and treatment have been reported for decades. The RESTORATIVE model demonstrates how racism interacts with pain to create trauma symptoms. This model provides a roadmap for critically needed pain research and future interventions.


It was an honor writing this article with my co-authors. Through the process, we were guided by cultural humility - a lifelong process of self-examination and learning. Moving beyond documentation to the elimination of pain inequities needs to happen now! We hope that the RESTORATIVE model provides that way forward.

Dr Anna M Hood
University of Manchester

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Racism exposure and trauma accumulation perpetuate pain inequities—advocating for change (RESTORATIVE): A conceptual model., American Psychologist, February 2023, American Psychological Association (APA), DOI: 10.1037/amp0001042.
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