What is it about?

We use the cooperative electrochemical reaction of molecular machines as material model of the intracellular matrix (ICM) dense gel of functional cells (sarcomere in muscular cells here) to understand and quantify how haptic muscles work and sense their working conditions.

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Why is it important?

How hatic muscles generate the sensing signals to inform the brain about the working chemical, mechanical or thermal conditions still remains unsoved. We use dense reactive gels of conducting polymers constituted by electrochemical molecular machines as material and reaction models to replicate and quantify biological molecular motors and their generated biological functions


The theoretical description here included related to the cooperative actuation of electrochemical molecular machines open a way for a future quantitative description of haptic muscles, brain-muscles communication and for the development of haptic artifcial tools and robots.

Professor Toribio F. Otero
Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena

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This page is a summary of: Chemical sensors from the cooperative actuation of multistep electrochemical molecular machines of polypyrrole: Voltammetric study, Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, December 2017, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2017.06.185.
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