What is it about?

This policy history describes how community choice aggregation (CCA) was created in Massachusetts by a small group of advocates and subsequently spread across the US. Kingdon’s multiple streams approach provides a useful framework to understand how organizing by advocates led to successful passage of legislation in Massachusetts.

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Why is it important?

CCA has since been adopted by more than 1800 local governments that represent more than 36 million people in six states. This article concludes by discussing the early outcomes, current status, and some prospective implications of community choice aggregation.


A new finding is that community choice aggregation was created as part of electric sector restructuring efforts in Massachusetts in 1997, but that this new policy was barely perceived by many stakeholders in the larger restructuring process, and was included by legislators in response to advocates who organized local governments through direct democracy strategies.

Associate Professor David Hsu
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Straight out of Cape Cod: The origin of community choice aggregation and its spread to other states, Energy Research & Social Science, April 2022, Elsevier,
DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2021.102393.
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