What is it about?

This paper shows how the remnants of the foundational Jezebel, Mammy, Matriarch, and Welfare Mother images of African American womanhood remain today, as exemplified by similar, yet more sexually explicit scripts in Hip Hop videos. These include the Freak, Gold Digger, Diva, and Dyke. This paper explores the sociohistorical development of these sexual scripts for African American female adolescents through an interpretation of Hip Hop culture documents, and the available empirical research.

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Why is it important?

These images are not simply pictures, but scripts that shape individuals' perceptions of young Black women. The relevance of these current sexual scripts to sexual identity development, sexual risk-taking behaviors, and interpersonal relationship dynamics are also addressed.


This is the first study to link the impact of sexual scripts in Hip Hop to behavioral and psychological outcomes.

Dr. Dionne P Stephens
Florida International University

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Freaks, gold diggers, divas, and dykes: The sociohistorical development of adolescent African American women’s sexual scripts, Sexuality & Culture, March 2003, Springer Science + Business Media,
DOI: 10.1007/bf03159848.
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