What is it about?

ABSTRACT: This book chapter discusses climate change impacts (socially, environmentally, and security-wise) for the Eastern Mediterranean region, with a particular emphasis on the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) that comprise the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the average global temperature is projected to rise until 2100 by a range of 1.1–6.4°C, and the sea level has been projected to rise between 18 and 58 cm. Data on the projected climate change at the regional scale are lacking. FOR CITATIONS: Salem, H.S. 2011. Social, environmental and security impacts of climate change on the Eastern Mediterranean. Book Chapter (PP: 421-445) in: Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, Czeslaw Mesjasz, John Grin, Patricia Kameri-Mbote, Béchir Chourou, Pal Dunay, and Jörn Birkmann, (Eds.): ”Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security – Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks”. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer-Verlag). (The book, in total about 2,000 pages, was sponsored by the Institute for Environment and Human Security – United Nations University (UNU-EHS)). (Book Chapter).

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Why is it important?

Recent reports issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warns that temperatures in the Middle East have increased between 2–3 °C in the last century, which is faster than the global average of about 1°C. As a result, the Middle East region is expected to have fewer – but more violent – rain events, increased drought, and decreasing resources of fresh water. More than 80% of climate models show that rainfall in the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region will decrease by up to 40 mm (4 cm) per year. With rainfall decreasing, growing seasons will be shorter for farmers.


This book chapter focuses on issues of climate change mitigation and adaptation, with respect to the challenges of climate change impacts, socially, environmentally, and security-wise. Interestingly, social and environmental impacts of climate change are discussed in this book chapter, with respect to the region of concern. Meanwhile security dimensions of climate change are discussed in this chapter regionally (i.e. with respect to the Eastern mediterranean region) and globally.

Prof. Dr. Hilmi S. Salem

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This page is a summary of: Social, Environmental and Security Impacts of Climate Change on the Eastern Mediterranean, January 2011, Springer Science + Business Media,
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-17776-7_23.
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