What is it about?
Possessing the X-Factor makes one more interesting, valuable, and unique than the rest. Based on a sample of 427 bachelor’s students, results of Study 1 supported the psychometric integrity of an X-Factor scale derived from various theoretical perspectives. Study 2 was a positive psychology strengths intervention, which entailed developing the X-Factor in 200 bachelor’s students (50 students randomly allocated to four groups; one untreated control and three experimental groups). The three interventions (individual, pair, and small group work) succeeded in developing the X-Factor in bachelor’s students, as indicated by the significant interaction effects of group and time of measurement (Pretest-Posttest-Follow-up test) on scores related to the X-Factor and its dimensions/subscales (self-insight, personal magnetism, self-determination, self-discipline, catalytic learning ability, and optimism). To examine the relative difference in the effect of the interventions, three sets of analysis of effect sizes were undertaken. The first set of analysis revealed that individual work was comparatively more suitable for enhancing the total X-Factor as well as self-determination, self-discipline, and optimism among university students. The second showed that pair work was comparatively more appropriate for improving self-insight and catalytic learning capability, whereas, the third demonstrated that small group work was more fitting for developing personal magnetism. Results have potential implications for education administrators, faculty members, student affairs practitioners, and positive psychology practitioners/facilitators. Researchers may use the valid and reliable scale in various innovative contexts to evaluate the potential of the X-Factor.
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Why is it important?
This research is important on several grounds. First, the current study provides a comprehensive understanding of the X-factor and its dimensions derived from various theoretical perspectives (Study 1). Second, there are practically no scales for measuring the construct. Therefore, the present research demonstrates the development and psychometric integrity of a scale for measuring the X-Factor (Study 1). Third, this study is perhaps the first to provide a modus operandi for conducting X-Factor training programs as positive psychology interventions (Study 2). Fourth, prior research has not focused on a comparison of individual work, pair work, and small group work (activity/experiential learning formats) as three different interventions for promoting the X-Factor in university students (Study 2). Fifth, there is a dire need for launching X-Factor training initiatives for Pakistan’s university students to help them in meeting the expectations of potential employers. Finally, researchers have also stressed on the need for teaching students how to develop the X-Factor, identifying the different dimensions of the X-Factor, and devising proper tools to assess them (Goodwin & Hein 2016; Rizwan 2015).
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This page is a summary of: Fostering the X-Factor in Pakistan’s university students, Current Psychology, April 2019, Springer Science + Business Media, DOI: 10.1007/s12144-019-00237-6.
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