What is it about?

Wheat is integral to human life as well as to human food. Today, wheat is grown on more land area than any other commercial crop. The main objective of industrial wheat milling process is to extract the maximum quantity of flour of desired quality. The milling process comprises three main stages : grinding ,sieving and purifying . Tempering is the process of adding a certain amount of water to adjust the moisture content of wheat kernels prior to milling, The effect of the tempering time and milling system (normal vs. hard) on the quality of wheat flour and pan bread was investigated for Australian and Russian wheat. Tempering was carried out for 12, 24, and 36 hr. The present study was carried out to modify the conditions of mill process to improve the quality and the functionality of wheat flour.

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Why is it important?

To produce high‐quality flour and consequently highly acceptable pan bread, kernels of Australian and Russian wheat should be tempered for 12 and 24 hr, respectively. Normal milling was superior to hard milling for both Australian and Russian wheat.


This research article reports important information on the effect of tempering time and level on milled flour baking quality. It has been rarely reported on effect of wheat tempering condition of flour quality in the large milling system similar to commercial scale .

mohammed abo-dief

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This page is a summary of: Quality of wheat flour and pan bread as influenced by the tempering time and milling system, Cereal Chemistry, April 2019, Wiley, DOI: 10.1002/cche.10142.
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