The Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Calophyllum inophyllum—Palm Biodiesel

Damanik, Ong, Mofijur, Tong, Silitonga, Shamsuddin, Sebayang, Mahlia, Wang, Jang
  • Processes, September 2019, MDPI AG
  • DOI: 10.3390/pr7090597

What is it about?

Nowadays, increased interest among the scientific community to explore the Calophyllum inophyllum as alternative fuels for diesel engines is observed. This research is about using mixed Calophyllum inophyllum-palm oil biodiesel production and evaluation that biodiesel in a diesel engine. The Calophyllum inophyllum–palm oil methyl ester (CPME) is processed using the following procedure: (1) the crude Calophyllum inophyllum and palm oils are mixed at the same ratio of 50:50 volume %, (2) degumming, (3) acid-catalysed esterification, (4) purification, and (5) alkaline- catalysed transesterification. The results are indeed encouraging which satisfy the international standards, CPME shows the high heating value (37.9 MJ/kg) but lower kinematic viscosity (4.50 mm2/s) due to change the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition compared to Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester (CIME). The average results show that the blended fuels have higher Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and NOx emissions, lower Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), along with CO and HC emissions than diesel fuel over the entire range of speeds. Among the blends, CPME5 offered better performance compared to other fuels. It can be recommended that the CPME blend has great potential as an alternative fuel because of its excellent characteristics, better performance, and less harmful emission than CIME blends.

Why is it important?

1. The physicochemical properties of CPME meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards 2. The blended fuel results in lower BTE and higher BSFC compared the diesel fuel because of its higher KV, density, and lower HHV. 3. The use of blended fuel as a partial replacement of diesel significantly decreased the CO and HC emission, which is likely due to the fact that this blend promotes complete combustion whereas there is a slight increase in NOx emissions due to higher oxygen contents. 4. Among the blends, CPME5 showed a better performance compared to the other blends.


Dr Arridina Susan Silitonga
Politeknik Negeri Medan

Petroleum derived fuels are the main source of primary energy consumption worldwide. Because of the negative impact and limited reserve of fossil fuels, scientists have focused on the new sources of energy to replace the fossil fuel [1,2]. Renewable energy sources have been proven to create less or zero-emission energy generation and can play an important role to lower fossil fuel consumption [3]. In many countries, different types of renewable energy sources including solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, bioenergy and biofuel has been introduced [4–9]. However, some renewable energy, including wind and solar, are only available for a certain time and period and therefore energy storage is required for these kinds of sources [10]. Due to this problem, researchers attempt to find other types of energy storage material that can be commercialized [11–14]. Therefore, some scientists, especially in developing countries are more interested in the energy sources that can be kept for a long period, such as bioenergy, bioethanol, and biodiesel [15–17]. Biodiesel is one renewable energy source, which can significantly lower emissions due to fossil fuel combustion that create air pollution, global warming, and acid rain [18]. Biodiesel sources include soybean oil, sunflower oil, palm oil and cottonseed oil, Jatropha curcas oil, mahua (Madhuca indica) oil, jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil, tobacco seeds, salmon oil, tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum) oil, sea mango oil (Cerbera odollam), and microalgae [19–22]

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The following have contributed to this page: Dr Arridina Susan Silitonga