What is it about?

Healthcare accessibility and equity remain important issues, as corruption in the form of informal payments is still prevalent in many countries across the world. This study employs a panel data analysis over the 2006–2013 period to explore the role of different institutional factors in explaining the prevalence of informal payments.

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Why is it important?

Covering 117 countries, our findings confirm the significant role of both formal and informal institutions. Good governance, a higher trust among individuals, and a higher commitment to tackling corruption are associated with diminishing informal payments. In addition, higher shares of private finance, such as out-of-pocket and domestic private health expenditure, are also correlated with a lower prevalence of informal payments. In policy terms, this displays how correcting institutional imperfections may be among the most efficient ways to tackle informal payments in healthcare.


Reveals across 117 countries the importance of trust and good governance in tackling corruption in the health services sector.

Professor Colin C Williams
University of Sheffield

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Institutional Determinants of Informal Payments for Health Services: An Exploratory Analysis across 117 Countries, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, November 2021, MDPI AG, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph182312421.
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