What is it about?

Following the COVID-19 outbreak, this study assessed the levels of depression, fear and function among Israeli citizens. We also explored the causal paths between age, employment, depression, fear of COVID-19 and function. The data was collected through an online panel and was based on a random, representative sample of 509 Israelis. The study used SEM to explore our theoretical model and PROCESS v.3.4 to examine multiple mediations within the model. The results indicate relatively high levels of depression and fears and relatively low levels of function. The results show that though people fear for their lives and the lives of others, the only fear that contributed to the prediction of function was the fear of economic ramifications following the COVID-19 outbreak. Economic fear and depression mediated the relationship between age and function and the relationship between employment and function. As for age, our results indicate a type of "victimization paradox" – older adults who are more at risk for physical harm due to COVID-19 reported lower levels of depression, fears and higher levels of function.

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Why is it important?

From the theoretical point of view, this research presents a possible causal explanation for the relationship between function and age and employment. From the clinical standpoint, the results emphasize the need to address such risk factors as young age and unemployment.


This study underlines the significance of employment and shows that fear of being infected or sick is less relevant to the day to day function than economic fears.

Dr Inna Levy
Ariel University

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Predicting Individual Function During COVID-19 Lockdown: Depression, Fear of COVID-19, Age, and Employment, Frontiers in Psychology, July 2021, Frontiers,
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.682122.
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