What is it about?

Up to now, the electromagnetic waves were respresented through the Electric and Magnetic fields. However, the Electric and Magnetic fields derive from a single field, the Vector Potential. The quantization of the Vector Potential leads to the reperesentation of photons. Thus, the electromagnetic waves can be represented from a unique field, the Vector Potential, as a superposition of photons.

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Why is it important?

The quantization of the Vector Potential amplitude is enhanced at a single photon level showing that all electromagnetic waves, whatever the frequency, are composed of a superposition of single photons. Thus, it is the first time the electromagnetic waves can be represented through a unique field, the quantized Vector Potential.


New modeling of the electromagnetic waves through the quantized Vector Potential field valid at any frequency.

Constantin Meis
CEA - Saclay

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Electromagnetic wave representation as a superposition of the quantized vector potential field of single photons, International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, April 2023, IOS Press, DOI: 10.3233/jae-220111.
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