What is it about?
β-lactolin is a whey-derived Gly-Thr-Trp-Tyr peptide rich in fermented dairy products, which improves human cognitive peformance of memory retrieval and attention in older adults. The current study evaluated the effects of β-lactolin on Alzheimer's disease. β-lactolin reduced inflammation in the brain and Aβ-deposition and improved memory imapairment in Alzheimer's disease model 5×FAD mice.
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Why is it important?
Our findings showed that β-lactolin reduces the inflammation in the brain and prevents Alzheimer's disease in mice. The results supprt the previous demonstrated clinical trials and eipidemiological investigations.
Read the Original
This page is a summary of: β-Lactolin, a Whey-Derived Lacto-Tetrapeptide, Prevents Alzheimer’s Disease Pathologies and Cognitive Decline, Journal of Alzheimer s Disease, February 2020, IOS Press, DOI: 10.3233/jad-190997.
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Supplementation With Whey Peptide Rich in β-Lactolin Improves Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Epidemiological reports showed that consumptions of fermented dairy products are beneficial for cognitive decline in elderly. Our previous preclinical studies have demonstrated that intakes of whey peptide rich in the β-lactolin [β-lactopeptide of glycine-thereonine-tryptophan-tyrosine (GTWY)] improve memory and attention by regulating monoamine system, and clinical study using neuropsychological test suggested that consumptions with GTWY-rich whey peptide enhance cognitive performance associated with the frontal cortex activity. However, corresponding interventional studies in humans are limited. Objectives: to evaluate the effects of the whey peptide on cognitive functions in healthy older adults using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial design. 114 healthy subjects aged 50-75 were supplemented with the whey peptide or placebo for 12 weeks, and changes in cognitive function were assessed using neuropsychological tests at weeks 0, 6, and 12 of the intervention. Neuropsychological tests included assessments for memory functions (subtests from Wechsler memory scale-revised, standard verbal paired-associate learning test, and recognition memory test for faces), assessments for attention (cancelation and detection tests), and assessments for general cognitive functions (repeatable battery for assessments of neuropsychological status). Cerebral blood flow was also assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) after 6 weeks of intervention. This study was registered on the 19 November, 2017 in the database of the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) prior to enrollment of subjects (Registration No. UMIN000030461: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index-j.htm). In the whey peptide group, visual paired-associates I and visual cancelation tests were significantly improved compared with those in the placebo group at weeks 6 and 12 of the intervention, respectively. Visuospatial and constructional scores of the repeatable battery for assessments of neuropsychological status and standard verbal paired-associate learning tests (S-PA) also tended to be improved by the intervention at week 12. Daily intakes of GTWY-rich whey peptide show beneficial effects on cognitive performance, especially associative learning memory and control of attention, in healthy older adults and might prevent age-related cognitive declines.
Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity
Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia.
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