What is it about?

This paper was designed to review the health and environmental impacts of inadequately treated or untreated industrial wastewater effluents in Pakistan.

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Why is it important?

Different industries release different types of effluents into the environment, which leads to specific environmental problems. Various pollutants are found in the water which affect the quality of water and impair the use of water for a stated purpose. Water having pollutants above the permissible limit is injurious to human health. The pollutants and the health hazards of these industrial sectors are summarized in this review paper.


Pakistan possesses developed industrial estate facilities in all provinces of the country. Most of these industrial estates are confined to a particular territory, however some industries are spread over near residential and commercial areas. They cater to all types of industry needs and are well supplied with a wide range of infrastructure and related services. These industrial zones are comprised of various kinds of industries such as textiles, paper and pulp, steel, ghee, chemical, pesticides, fertilizer, petroleum, detergents, dairy products, pharmaceuticals, plastics and others. In the area effluents of all industries are discharged into small drains which eventually join big drains and ultimately thrown into the rivers. Effluents discharged from industries usually contain hazardous and toxic substances that eventually settle down as bottom sediment in the river water. In developing countries the urban population is mostly affected by using this water for domestic purposes. Irrigation with these industrial wastewater is common in the urban areas. The effluents containing mainly heavy metals can pollute the water stream, which is of great concern because of their persistency and non-biodegradability in the environment.

Mr Muhammad Ilyas

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Environmental and health impacts of industrial wastewater effluents in Pakistan: a review, Reviews on Environmental Health, April 2019, De Gruyter,
DOI: 10.1515/reveh-2018-0078.
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