What is it about?

The the aims of this study are to analyze the psychometric properties of the Philippine (N=308) and German (N=200) version of the Human System Audit Transformational Leadership Short-scale (HSA-TFL Short-scale) and to identify whether transformational profiles are similar or different in Germany and Philippines. In todays’ global environment the number of multinationals in organizations increases and straighter trade relations between countries. This produces the companies’ need for short leadership instruments that are scientifically designed, quick to apply and in a global environment of reliable use. Factor structure, convergent and criterion validity as well as transformational profiles were analyzed for Germany and Philippines, important economies in their regional’s economic block, that faced a considerable growth on their relations. Results indicate that HSA-TFL Short is a reliable instrument (α = .90) with a one-factor structure and good convergent validity for both countries. Criterion validity was different in both countries and sensible to the cultural context. The transformational profiles, using the MLQ-5X, showed differences for both countries. The study provides empirical evidence for the validity of the HSA-TFL Short-scale.

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Why is it important?

We test the psychometric properties and invariance of the Philippine and German version of the Human System Audit Transformational Leadership Short-scale (HSA-TFL Short-scale), so the leadership scale can be used in both languages and across countries. We also describe profiles for both countries to give information on transformational leadership perception in both countries.


We hope that this article adds useful information on the perception of cross-cultural leadership behavior.

Professor Rita Berger
Universitat de Barcelona

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Psychometric properties of the human system audittransformational leadership short scale in Germany and Philippines: a cross-cultural study, Psychologica, January 2019, Coimbra University Press,
DOI: 10.14195/1647-8606_62-1_9.
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