Investigation of tin-based alternatives for cadmium in optoelectronic thin-film materials

  • Steven Wakeham, Gary Hawkins, Graham Henderson, Nicholas Carthey
  • Applied Optics, January 2008, Optical Society of America (OSA)
  • DOI: 10.1364/ao.47.00c206

Replacement of Cadmium with Tin in Optoelectronics

What is it about?

Removal of cadmium from thin-film optical and semiconductor device applications has been hampered by the absence of viable alternatives that exhibit similar properties with stability and durability.

Why is it important?

Increasing legislation has steadily been introduced throughout the world to restrict the use of heavy metals, particularly cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in high temperature pigments, ceramics, and optoelectronic material applications.


Dr Gary J Hawkins
University of Reading

We describe a range of tin-based compounds that have been deposited and characterized in terms of their optical and mechanical properties and compare them with existing cadmium-based films that currently find widespread use in the optoelectronic and semiconductor industries.

Read Publication

The following have contributed to this page: Dr Gary J Hawkins