Fictionality and Facts in Elizabeth Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Brontë
What is it about?
This article places Elizabeth Gaskell’s The Life of Charlotte Brontë in the context of responses it provoked from contemporaries, including their retrospective re-readings of Jane Eyre. By 1857, the novel form had come a long way from its eighteenth-century origins in the roman à clef, but some parts of Gaskell’s Life return to and invert that tradition, reading almost like a clef to Jane Eyre—so much so as to force a printed retraction and substantial revisions. Gaskell wrote the Life well after fictionality emerged as a concept distinct from history and journalism. Nevertheless, in its intersection with Jane Eyre, the Life reveals the traces of fictional realist convention in factual accounts and, conversely, shows how far the novel, fictional form par excellence, retained an aura of facticity.
Why is it important?
Readers ask novelists how much of their work is biographical; they ask biographers how much is fictional. This essay on one woman author's account of another considers the facts of Charlotte Bronte's life as they are treated in her own Jane Eyre, and in Elizabeth Gaskell's biography, and demonstrates that the power of the novel--that great fictional form--continued to depend on its relation to "real life" well into the nineteenth century.
The following have contributed to this page: Dr Sarah Allison