A case-control field study on the relationships among type 2 diabetes, sleepiness and habitual caffeine intake

Emily Urry, Alexander Jetter, Sebastian C Holst, Wolfgang Berger, Giatgen A Spinas, Wolfgang Langhans, Hans-Peter Landolt
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology, February 2017, SAGE Publications
  • DOI: 10.1177/0269881116668595

What is it about?

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible links between type 2 diabetes, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and caffeine consumption. Methods: In this case-control field study, comparing type 2 diabetic (n=134) and non-type 2 diabetic (n=230) participants, subjects completed detailed and validated questionnaires to assess demographic status, health, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and timing, diurnal preference, mistimed circadian rhythms and habitual caffeine intake. All participants gave saliva under standardised conditions for CYP1A2 genotyping and quantification of caffeine concentration. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined whether type 2 diabetes status was associated with caffeine consumption. Results: Type 2 diabetic participants reported greater daytime sleepiness (p=0.001), a higher prevalence of sleep apnoea (p=0.005) and napping (p=0.008), and greater habitual caffeine intake (p<0.001), derived from the consumption of an extra cup of coffee each day. This finding was confirmed by higher saliva caffeine concentration at bedtime (p=0.01). Multiple regression analyses revealed that type 2 diabetes status was associated with higher self-reported caffeine consumption (p<0.02) and higher salivary caffeine (p<0.02). Next to male sex, type 2 diabetes status was the strongest predictor of caffeine intake. Subjective sleep and circadian estimates were similar between case and control groups. Conclusions: Type 2 diabetic patients may self-medicate with caffeine to alleviate daytime sleepiness. High caffeine intake reflects a lifestyle factor that may be considered when promoting type 2 diabetes management

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The following have contributed to this page: Professor Hans Peter Landolt and Dr Sebastian Camillo Holst