What is it about?

A simple way of combining chemicals in the basis of common pathological endpoints for the purposes of risk assessment.

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Why is it important?

We are exposed to multiple chemicals on a daily basis but experimentally few mixtures have been tested for their cumulative toxicity. This pragmatic approach avoids the need for additional toxicity studies and fully utilises the available data in a sound, scientific manner.


This is the first example of what has been attempted bu the European regulatory assessors in a simplified way that clearly introduces too many wrong endpoints for it to be workable. Our modifications provide a sound pathological basis fir combining chemicals in the liver which can be extended to other organ systems

John Foster

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This page is a summary of: The Cumulative Risk Assessment of Hepatotoxic Chemicals: A Hepatic Histopathology Perspective, Toxicologic Pathology, January 2020, SAGE Publications,
DOI: 10.1177/0192623319895481.
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