What is it about?

We examine whether race and age impact the frequency and duration of restraint events among adolescents and adults in an inpatient psychiatric setting. This is one of the first publications to examine restraint duration and look at the interaction of age and race.

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Why is it important?

Many previous studies have documented racial disparities in the use of restraint as well as age-based differences but none have looked at their interaction. Adultification is a specific form of bias in which youth of color, especially adolescents, are often treated as being older than their biological age.


Although the results are troubling in that they continue to provide evidence of racial disparities in both the frequency and duration of restraint events, there was no evidence of adultification. We conclude with recommendations on how to reduce the use of restraint, especially among youth of color.

Tim Michaels
Northwell Health

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Race-Based Disparities in the Frequency and Duration of Restraint Use in a Psychiatric Inpatient Setting, Psychiatric Services, April 2024, American Psychiatric Association,
DOI: 10.1176/appi.ps.20230057.
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