What is it about?

The article conducts an in-depth analysis of Article 22(1) of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights that provides the definition of ‘Geographical Indication (GI)’, focusing specifically on the field of wine. Particularly, the research analyses: (1) the concept of ‘indication’; (2) the words ‘quality, reputation or other characteristic’ and (3) the adverb ‘essentially’. Building upon the text of the Agreement; its drafting history and adopting the EU GI regime as a case study, the research concludes that: first, the concept of ‘indication’, in spite of its literal meaning and historical origin, can be subject to a very broad interpretation; second, wine remains a product characterised by a qualitative link with its area of production, although the importance of the ‘reputational link’ is growing; and, lastly, that the adverb ‘essentially’ introduces a margin of flexibility, thus allowing products that are not ‘exclusively’ related to a specific area to qualify for GI protection nonetheless.

Featured Image

Why is it important?

This article is important as it clarifies the meaning and scope of the definition of 'Geographical Indication' provided under art 22(1) TRIPS


This article is meant to provide a detailed and fresh view on the meaning and scope of art 22(1) TRIPS, that is of the definition of Geographical Indication. A complete analysis of this article has never been conducted before. This is why I hope that you will find it useful.

Andrea Zappalaglio
University of Sheffield

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Getting Article 22(1) TRIPS Right: A Commentary on the Definition of ‘Geographical Indication’ from a European Union Perspective with a Focus on Wines, The Journal of World Investment & Trade, April 2022, Brill, DOI: 10.1163/22119000-12340246.
You can read the full text:



The following have contributed to this page