What is it about?

Despite the lack of unambiguous references to the Spirit, scholars have argued vigorously both for and against identifying some (though not all) of the occurrences of πνεῦμα (pneuma, the Greek word for spirit or breath) as references to the Holy Spirit. In the last couple of decades, a renewed interest in the Apocalypse—especially by pentecostal biblical scholars—has led to a fresh discovery of its pneumatology, among other insights. This essay surveys the pneumatological components found in Revelation. Specifically, it investigates references to πνεῦμα, which naturally fall into four groupings: (1) the seven spirits, (2) John’s claim to be “in the Spirit,” (3) references to the Spirit speaking, and (4) the concept of “the Spirit of prophecy.”

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Why is it important?

This article is part of a double issue of Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies. The issue includes articles on the Spirit throughout the canon. Craig Keener served as the guest editor for the issue.

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This page is a summary of: The Spirit in John’s Apocalypse, Pneuma, December 2021, Brill,
DOI: 10.1163/15700747-bja10049.
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