What is it about?

We provide explanation to human operator who is controlling the industrial control system (ICS). This explanation can enable operator to perform his tasks in an accurate way. The explanation is also helpful when the ICS is under attack.

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Why is it important?

Our main contributions in this work are follows: 1. A formal framework for designing human-on-the-loop self-adaptive systems where an explanation can be used to aid the human operator to improve the utility of the overall system is applied in the context of security of ICSs; 2. Synthesis of optimal explanations in the context of ICS security attacks; 3. An illustration of the applicability of our approach on a case study involving a realistic industrial control system (namely, a secure water treatment plant [Singapore University of Technology and Design]); 4. A user study validating the applicability of explanations in real-world ICSs.


In Industrial Control Systems, human operators are part of the system and majority of decision taken by these operators. It is important to provide explanations to operators in order to improve the efficiency of no-voice operators. Especially under cyber attacks, explanations can be useful.

Sridhar Adepu
University of Bristol

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Modeling and Analysis of Explanation for Secure Industrial Control Systems, ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, December 2022, ACM (Association for Computing Machinery),
DOI: 10.1145/3557898.
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