What is it about?
Summary Infancy is the critical period of neurodevelopment. However, the association of birth weight with neurodevelopment of infant at age of 1~6 months has been poorly understood. In this study, we used data of 4026 infants from Wuhan Healthy Baby cohort study (WHBC) to investigate the association of birth weight with neurodevelopment. Data on birth weight were abstracted from medical records and classified into low birth weight (birth weight less than 2500 grams), normal birth weight ( birth weight is 2500 grams or greater but less than 4000 grams), and macrosomia ( birth weigh is 4000 grams or greater). Neurodevelopment test was done by trained pediatricians for infants at age of 1~6 months. Both development quotient (DQ) and neurodevelopmental diagnosis of the five domains were examined as the outcomes. In multivariable analysis, we adjusted for method of delivery, number of prenatal visits, maternal active or passive smoking, gestational age, gender, birth length, asphyxia neonatorum and prenatal social demographic information such as maternal and father’s education. Adjusted regression coefficient of low birth weight and macrosomia for gross motor DQ were -11.18 (95%CI -11.36-10.99) and 0.49 (0.36~0.63), fine motor DQ -6.57 (-6.76~-6.39) and -2.73 (-2.87~-2.59), adaptability DQ -4.87 (-5.05~-4.68) and -1.19 (-1.33~-1.05), language DQ -6.23 (-6.42~-6.05) and 0.43 (0.29~0.57), and social behavior DQ -6.82 (-7.01~-6.64) and 1.10 (0.96~1.24). Adjusted OR of low birth weight for diagnosis of ‘neurodevelopmental delay’ of gross motor was 2.43 (1.65~3.60), fine motor 1.49 (1.01~2.19) and adaptability 1.56 (1.06~2.31). Low birth weight has no significant effects on ‘neurodevelopmental delay’ of language and social behavior, and macrosomia has no significant effects on clinical diagnosis of ‘neurodevelopmental delay’ of all domains. The results highlighted that both low birth weight and macrosomia are associated with infants’ DQ, and low birth weight increases the risk of diagnosing as ‘neurodevelopmental delay’ on gross motor, fine motor and adaptability among infants at age of 1~6 months. Further studies are warranted to determine whether, to what extent and how birth weight affect the neurodevelopment of the child.
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Why is it important?
This study provide evidence that both low birth weight and macrosomia have effect on neurodevelopment of infants aged 1-6 months, when is the critical period neurodevelopment, suggesting that intervention on low birth weight and macrosomia may be necessary for improving infant’s neurodevelopment.
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This page is a summary of: Association between birth weight and neurodevelopment at age 1–6 months: results from the Wuhan Healthy Baby Cohort, BMJ Open, January 2020, BMJ, DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031916.
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