What is it about?

This article positions rhetoric as a bridge between oracy and citizenship education. It presents the first comparative curricular study of Scotland, Slovenia and Norway. It demonstrates shared policy aims and practical challenges in the delivery of oracy and citizenship education in these three nations.

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Why is it important?

Rhetoric goes further than existing policy ambitions for oracy; it includes civic training, and cultivates skills for democratic deliberation and participation in society. We explore the motivations for the teaching of rhetoric (to learners aged 7–16) in each national educational system, which range from significant coverage (Slovenia) to scant reference (Scotland), with Norway representing the middle ground, and we assess the importance of ancient teachings of rhetoric in contemporary classrooms. We outline the policy and curricular challenges associated with training teachers to teach rhetoric and share testimonies from both staff and students regarding their learning experiences with something which is ‘new’ to many, yet ‘ancient’ to some.


Writing this article was a great pleasure as it started a fruitful collaboration with co-authors.

Janja Zmavc
Educational Research Institute Slovenia

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Rhetoric, oracy and citizenship: curricular innovations from Scotland, Slovenia and Norway, Literacy, August 2022, Wiley, DOI: 10.1111/lit.12299.
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