What is it about?

This paper discusses the historical development of China's retirement income system, as it moves toward a more complex, multi-tier system. Currently, the government social security programs are dominant, but China has introduced reforms to add a second and third tier.

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Why is it important?

This paper discusses major reforms to China's retirement income system.


There is great interest in China's retirement income system because of China's important role in the world.

John Turner
Pension Policy Center

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This page is a summary of: China’s development of a multi‐tier pension system, International Social Security Review, January 2021, Wiley, DOI: 10.1111/issr.12256.
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