What is it about?

As the nature of conflict changes armed forces become further engaged in supporting peacekeeping operations and deliver training to host nation security forces, and human security becomes an increasingly important function of military operations, the protection of cultural heritage (as an expression of a people’s identity) becomes a significant contribution to individual operations.

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Why is it important?

ANSAs comprise individuals and groups that are wholly or partly independent of State governments and which threaten or use violence to achieve their goals, such as Islamic State. As such, the military operating environment has changed since 1954.


International obligations to States Parties for the in situ protection of cultural heritage, under both International Humanitarian Law and HC54, become an ever increasing important responsibility for armed forces to help deliver.

Mark Dunkley
Cranfield University

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Culture, conflict and armed non-state actors: cultural heritage protection in a changing operating environment, Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, September 2021, Emerald,
DOI: 10.1108/jchmsd-08-2020-0122.
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