What is it about?

New metaheuristic algorithms have been shown to be robust and effective for engineering optimization problems. Differential Evolution (DE), which is one of the most famous optimization approaches developed for optimal design problems with continuous design variables, is, in fact, inappropriate for constrained problems containing discrete design variables. In this article, an improved constrained differential evolution (iCDE) algorithm is proposed for optimization of steel frames with discrete design variables, followed by comprehensive testing of iCDE to validate the results.

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Why is it important?

The results show that the iCDE algorithm is computationally efficient and robust enough to find the global optima.


The iCDE algorithm is more efficient compared to the others reported in the literature as GA, ACO, IACO, ICA, HS, and SBO.

Mehdi Babaei
University of Zanjan

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This page is a summary of: An improved constrained differential evolution for optimal design of steel frames with discrete variables, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, August 2019, Taylor & Francis, DOI: 10.1080/15397734.2019.1657890.
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