What is it about?

In the 60-plus year history of returns to investment in education estimates, there have been several compilations in the literature. This paper reviews the latest trends and patterns based on 1120 estimates in 139 countries from 1950 to 2014. Private returns to higher education increased, raising issues of financing and equity. Social returns to schooling remain high.

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Why is it important?

Women continue to experience higher average returns to schooling, showing that girls’ education remains a priority.


Writing this article with George Psacharopoulos was a great pleasure.

Harry Patrinos
World Bank Group

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This page is a summary of: Returns to investment in education: a decennial review of the global literature, Education Economics, June 2018, Taylor & Francis, DOI: 10.1080/09645292.2018.1484426.
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