What is it about?

This work shows how to build a dynamic control system, similar to the one used in industry, inside living mammalian cells. The synthetic control system measures a variable of interest and regulates its value precisely over time through a molecular proportional-integral feedback mechanism.

Featured Image

Why is it important?

This work could open the door to using similar control systems for cell therapy to regulate the release of therapeutics and in industrial biotechnology applications.


This work took us a good part of 7 years to complete. It is the realization of a dream to build functioning synthetic integral feedback control systems in living cells for various applications.

Mustafa Khammash
ETH Zurich

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: A genetic mammalian proportional–integral feedback control circuit for robust and precise gene regulation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2022, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2122132119.
You can read the full text:



The following have contributed to this page