Probing interfacial charge accumulation in ITO/α-NPD/Alq3/Al diodes under two electroluminescence operational modes by electric-field induced optical second-harmonic generation

Atsuo Sadakata, Kenshiro Osada, Dai Taguchi, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Masahiro Fukuzawa, Takaaki Manaka, Mitsumasa Iwamoto
  • Journal of Applied Physics, January 2012, American Institute of Physics
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4762014