What is it about?

The near point of convergence (NPC) for children was investigated using an objective push-up convergence pursuit test. NPC increased significantly with age. NPC tends to decrease with age in children between the ages of 2 and 17. The occurrence of an NPC of more than 5 cm was not seen until children were over 8 years of age.

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Why is it important?

Healthy binocular vision produces important visual perceptual skills which are part of normal human vision: binocular depth perception and stereopsis. NPC is the distance before which an object will not be in focus for two eyes without appearing as a double image and is an important aspect of binocular vision. A significant age trend for the NPC breakpoint was found where kindergarten children showed better NPC breaks than those of third-grade children or sixth-grade children. This study investigated the age effect on the NPC in children from 2 years old and up to establish the normative value of the NPC in children, especially pre-school children.


This research helps to understand the near visual function development of young children. Visual development helps shape confidence acquisition in children since vision is the most important gateway to the environment and society. In Part II of this study, the amplitude of accommodation (AA) was measured on 405 children. Both monocular and binocular spectacle AA decreased significantly with age. In Part III, the near heterophoria of 268 children was measured. Age did not significantly influence the average near heterophoria, but the variance of near heterophoria was significantly higher in older children

Prof Dr Ai Hong Chen
Universiti Teknologi MARA

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This page is a summary of: Near visual function in young children. Part I: near point of convergence. Part II: amplitude of accommodation. Part III: near heterophoria, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, May 2000, Wiley,
DOI: 10.1046/j.1475-1313.2000.00498.x.
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