What is it about?
An accessible introduction to ratchets, discussing the basics of the field, and where we stand today. Three conditions are needed to achieve transport: (i) breaking the spatial inversion symmetry, for instance by applying an electric field with periodic asymmetric repeat units (e.g., a sawtooth potential); (ii) breaking temporal symmetry, typically assured by energy dissipation; and (iii) energy input to keep the system away from equilibrium (otherwise rectification would be prohibited by the 2nd law of thermodynamics).
The following have contributed to this page: Dr Ofer Kedem
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