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We describe the highly sensitive detection of the nonspecific adsorption of proteins onto a 1-undecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-formed gold electrode by parallel analysis using field effect transistor (FET), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors. The FET sensor detects the innate electric charges of the adsorbed protein at the electrode/solution interface, transforming the change in charge density into a potentiometric signal in real time, without the requirement for labels. In particular, using the Debye–Huckel model, the degree of potential shift was proportional to the dry mass of adsorbed albumin and β-casein. A comparison of the FET signal with SPR and QCM data provided information on the conformation and orientation of the surface-bound protein by observing characteristic break points in the correlation slopes between the signals. These slope transitions reflect a multistage process that occurs upon protein adsorption as a function of protein concentration, including interim coverage, film dehydration, and monolayer condensation. The FET biosensor, in combination with SPR and QCM, represents a new technology for interrogating protein–material interactions both quantitatively and qualitatively.

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This page is a summary of: Interpretation of Protein Adsorption through Its Intrinsic Electric Charges: A Comparative Study Using a Field-Effect Transistor, Surface Plasmon Resonance, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance, Langmuir, October 2012, American Chemical Society (ACS),
DOI: 10.1021/la302977s.
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