What is it about?

Through a careful study of the Bernardo Carpio legend and its historical and geographical context, this paper details changes in lower-class consciousness that contributed to the Philippine revolution against Spain in the 1890s.

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Why is it important?

The success of leadership in a revolution is bound up with the changing ideas of the masses coming into struggle. This paper reconstructs a baseline for understanding the rapid alterations in consciousness that shaped the course of the Philippine Revolution.


This article was a product of a part of my UC Berkeley masters thesis which critiqued Philippine history Reynaldo Ileto's famous 1979 work, Pasyon and Revolution.

Dr Joseph Scalice
Hong Kong Baptist University

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This page is a summary of: Pamitinan and Tapusi: Using the Carpio legend to reconstruct lower-class consciousness in the late Spanish Philippines, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, June 2018, Cambridge University Press,
DOI: 10.1017/s0022463418000218.
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