What is it about?

The article describes the findings of a narrative literature review of the subjects of goals and goal-setting in academic and allied sources. It gives the current knowledge, according to the literature reviewed, of the goal definition and classifications, the goal setting theory, philosophical principles that form the basis of goal setting practices, goal formulation frameworks, SMART goal criteria and the goal setting studies in the healthcare sector.

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Why is it important?

There is evidence that most organisations, especially in the health sector, lack the appropriate skills to formulate good goals. Understanding the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of goals enables an informed application in organisational or personal goal setting practices. In particular, the frameworks could be used as practical aids to formulate good and SMART goal statements for a more realistic action planning.


The proposed OITT (Outcome-Indicator-Target-Timeframe) framework for constructing SMART goal or objective statements could improve the goal setting practice of results oriented organisations, programmes or projects, especially those delivering healthcare services.

Dr Osahon J. I. Ogbeiwi
University of Bradford

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: General concepts of goals and goal-setting in healthcare: A narrative review, Journal of Management & Organization, April 2018, Cambridge University Press,
DOI: 10.1017/jmo.2018.11.
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