What is it about?

Recognizing that enterprises operate at varying levels of informality, this paper evaluates the determinants of their degree of informality.

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Why is it important?

Reporting a 2012 survey of 300 informal micro-enterprises in the city of Lahore in Pakistan, the finding is that the key predictors of their level of informality are the characteristics of the entrepreneur and enterprise, rather than their motives or the wider formal and informal institutional compliance environment. Lower degrees of informality are associated with women, older, educated and higher income entrepreneurs and older enterprises with employees in the manufacturing sector.


This paper evaluates how enterprises operate at varying levels of informality.

Professor Colin C Williams
University of Sheffield

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This page is a summary of: Determinants of the Level of Informality of Informal Micro-Enterprises: Some Evidence from the City of Lahore, Pakistan, World Development, August 2016, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.09.003.
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