What is it about?

Iron (Fe) is the most important ferromagnetic element, not only for its high magnetic moment and high Curie temperature but for its abundance as well. Fe-based magnetic materials are therefore widely applied in technologies and industries, with most of the applications for soft magnetic materials, because of the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of Fe. However, it is possible to realize magnetic hardening in Fe-based materials as we have learned from the early carbon steel permanent magnets, although the coercivity of the magnets was modest. In this paper, we review the history and the recent developments of Fe-based hard and semi-hard magnetic materials with a focus on mechanisms of high MCA in Fe-based phases and the related crystal and electronic structures.

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Why is it important?

The green energy field such as electric/hybrid vehicles, and wind turbines has a rapidly increasing demand for high-performance permanent magnets. The presently used magnets are Nd-Fe-B, which need resource-limited, high-cost rare earth (RE) elements such as Nd, Pr, etc. RE-free, resource-abundant iron-based materials are promising alternatives and attracting more research attention recently.


The paper gives an overview of the recent progress and outlook which may further arise research interest in developing iron-based magnets.

Xubo Liu
Ames National Laboratory

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Hard and semi-hard Fe-based magnetic materials, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, September 2023, Elsevier,
DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2023.170258.
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