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Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complicated pathophysiological syndrome, leading cause of hospitalization as well as mortalities in developed countries wherein an irregular function of the heart leads to the insufficient blood supply to the body organs. It is an accumulative slackening of various complications including myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CAD), hypertension, valvular heart disease (VHD) and cardiomyopathy; its hallmarks include hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis and loss of myocytes. The etiology of CHF is very complex and despite the rapid advancement in pharmacological and device-based interventional therapies still, a single therapy may not be sufficient to meet the demand for coping with the diseases.

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This page is a summary of: Cardio-supportive devices (VRD & DCC device) and patches for advanced heart failure: A review, summary of state of the art and future directions, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, June 2018, Elsevier,
DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.03.049.
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