What is it about?

Tourism organizations around the globe, along with various professional and academic studies, have signaled the importance of halal tourism as an emerging lucrative market segment. Yet, there is no uniform and parsimonious scale to measure the range of hotel halal services that are most important to Muslim travelers when travelling to non-Muslim countries.

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Why is it important?

This study conceptualized a new multidimensional and continuum instrument for measuring the perceived importance of halal services provided by hotels to Muslim guests. A rigorous procedure consisting of a six-stage scale development, four studies, 1,157 participants, and the novel application of an Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling framework (ESEM) culminated in a four-dimensional, twenty-five-item model. The results confirmed the continuum structure of halal services and supported reliability and validity. The new scale contributes to our understanding of the synergetic, complex, and multidimensional role of services in tourism.


The purpose of this study was to shed light on the synergistic, complex, and entangled service needs of Muslim tourists by examining the dimensionality as a part of the scale development methodology. The results affirmed the multidimensional and continuum structure of the newly-developed scale and the superiority of the B-ESEM solution.

Dr. Avraam Papastathopoulos
University of Dubai

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Which hotel services really matter to Muslim travelers? Developing and validating a multidimensional-continuum scale, International Journal of Hospitality Management, April 2022, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2022.103145.
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