What is it about?

UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS was used to identify the free, esterified and bound phenolic compounds in Kainth fruit extracts. In total, around 17, 15 and 18 free, esterified and bound phenolic compounds respectively were identified. Among these, Procyanidin B2, Epicatechin, Phloridzin, Hesperetin, etc. are being reported for the first time. The total phenolic content of free, esterified and bound fractions were 178.33 ± 6.90, 151.33 ±7.73 and707.16 ± 19.77 mg GAE/100 g of fruit. The major phenolic compounds quantified were chlorogenic acid(7.97 mg/100 g), arbutin (7.05 mg/100 g) and catechin (44.56 mg/100 g) in free, esterified and bound form respectively. Various antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, TAC and FRAP) were performed for all the extracts. Among different extracts, the bound phenolics exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Systematic identification and quantitative profiling of phenolics in Kainth fruit being presented for the first time would help in utilising this fruit for designing functional food formulations.

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Why is it important?

Several studies have shown that Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Donfruit (Kainth) is an excellent source of phenolics. Previously, Saini,Garg, and Dangwal (2012) have reported the polyphenols quantification by RP-HPLC technique and found that the fruit is rich in gallic acidand catechin, with traces of caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ellagic acid andmany other phytochemicals. As it has been discussed earlier, this fruit is traditionally been used for digestive disorders, dysentery, abdominal pain and also known to have diuretic property. It is hypothesized that the medicinal properties of this fruit could be due to the presence of higher amount of secondary metabolites like phenolic compounds. Further, till date there are no reports on the free, bound and soluble esterified phenolic compounds profile of this fruit, which would provide the factual value of total phenolics and the nature of phenolic compounds present in this fruit. With this background, the present study was aimed to fractionate the phenolic compounds of Kainth fruit pulp into free, esterified and bound forms and characterize the phenolic compounds after hydrolysis by UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS and quantification of the major phenolic compounds with reference standards.


The Kainth fruit extract was fractionated into free, esterified andbound form. Using the powerful analytical method, UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS, around 17 free, 15 esterified and 18 bound phenolic compoundswere identified respectively in fresh Kainth fruit pulp. Among these,few compounds like catechin, ferulic, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid has been reported in Kainth fruit. Phenolic compounds like Procyanidin B2, Epicatechin, Phloridzin, Vanillic acid hexoside, Jasmonic acid,Sinapic acid, Hesperetin, Ampeloptin etc. are being reported for the first time in Kainth fruit pulp. The quantification of phenolics in the extracts indicated that bound phenolics were found in higher concentrations compared to free and esterified phenolics. Also antioxidant activities exhibited by bound phenolics was higher compared to free and esterified phenolics. In this fruit, such exhaustive profiling of the phenolic compounds is being reported for the first time. The data provided gives an overall picture of the phenolic profile and their content in Kainth fruit which can be useful in determining dietary polyphenols intake for further designing of functional food formulations using these bioactive phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are well known for their pharmacological properties. Hence, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in this fruit provides a scientific basis for the traditional practice of using this fruit intreating different ailments.

vithal kudachikar
council of scientific and industrial research,newdelhi,india

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This page is a summary of: Characterization, quantification of free, esterified and bound phenolics in Kainth (Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. Ex D.Don) fruit pulp by UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS and evaluation of their antioxidant activity, Food Chemistry, November 2019, Elsevier,
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125114.
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