Discrete electronic components reliability
Prof. Titu I. Bajenescu (Author)retired
critical points and ground, and judiciously placing traces on PCBs that may act asantennas for ESD-generated fields. To understand and characterize how devicesare damaged, researchers often use one of three models: the machine model, thehuman body model, and the charged device model (CDM). Pierce  concluded that99.9% of ESD damage originates from the CDM. Improved ESD testing methodsmust include TLP testing  not only at the wafer level but also after the devicehas been packaged for qualification processes such as burn-in.For systems that integrate advanced technology IC components, designing ESDrobust systems can be very challenging. There are three specific ESD issues : (i)test specification requirements for ESD for the system versus IC providers; (ii) under-standing of ESD failures (physical failure, system upset) and their causes based on thesystem- and IC-levelconstraints;and (iii) fault responsibilitybetween systemdesignersand IC providerswith regard to the proper system ESD design level. The great majorityof ESD failures are catastrophic. The major physical reason for catastrophic failures isan electrical breakdown, and various thermoelectrical current instabilities in devicesalso contribute to such failures . Experience has demonstrated that bipolar transis-tors are resistant or very resistant to ESD, but MOSFETs are inherently sensitive. If thegate rupture voltage is exceeded, catastrophic failure is the consequence. A correctassembly process minimizes the potential for failure, but it always remains a risk. 5.5 Conclusions In this chapter, we identify and describe the reliability-building issues for electroniccomponents, including DfR, process reliability, CE, screening, and burn-in. DfR is avaluable process for lowering cost, reducing time-to-market, and improving customer satisfaction, a major tool for reliability building currently used for designing electroniccomponents.Here, weanalyze thereliability offivefamiliesofdiscrete electroniccom-ponents,andweidentifythetypicalFMsandcorrespondingcorrectiveactions.Notably,ensuring the reliability of electronic components has become increasingly difficultbecause of the industry trend toward scaling down device dimensions coupled withincreasing complexity and power requirements and the introduction of new materialsand technologies. In order to better answer these challenges, reliability studies increas-ingly focus on the PoF, which is also known as reliability physics. The root causes of failure(fatigue,fracture,wear,corrosion,etc.)canbemodeledwiththeaidofPoF,whichhasbecomeapowerfultoolfor leveraging the value ofDfR activities. Inthe future,PoFbased onprognostics and healthmanagementseems to bea cost-effectivemeans ofpre-dicting the reliability ofelectronicproductsand systems because itcan helpidentifythemost critical failure under the real application conditions for the products
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