What is it about?

The aim of this study was to develop the future prevention of blood clotting. In the 20th century inactive compression stockings were used for blood clot prevention. However, it is well-known that inactive compression stockings are not so effective for prevention of blood clotting, while active compression of the calf can move venous blod to prevent blood clots to develop. The aim of this study was in a newly developed sock with integrated electrodes to investigate the best electrical stimulation settings to produce ankle movements that can increase venous blod flow.

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Why is it important?

Physical inactivity in the form of postoperative immobilization or even prolonged sitting work starts the initiation of blood clotting in the lower limbs. Compression of the calf muscle increases venous blood flow and mimics blood flow during normal walking. Integration of electrical stimulation within normal socks could revolutionize prevention of blood clotting because of increased compliance to treatment.


We found that electrical stimulation applied to the calf via a sock with integrated textile electrodes is sufficient to produce a clinically relevant muscle activity which may increase blood flow and prevent development of blood clotting. We established the most comfortable settings for electrical stimulation with textile electrodes.

Professor Paul W Ackermann
Karolinska Institutet

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in garments optimized for compliance, European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, April 2023, Springer Science + Business Media,
DOI: 10.1007/s00421-023-05181-9.
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