What is it about?

Academic enablers allow students to take part in classroom activities and get benefits from teaching. Contemplating the role of gender in students’ academic enabling behaviors, this research was designed. Researchers determined that participants are more motivated as compared to their study skills, interpersonal skills, and engagement. Overall, they had a competent level in all the academic enabling behaviors. Moreover, gender-based significant difference was found in all academic enabling behaviors. while gender had small effects on participants’ views about academic enabling behaviors.

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Why is it important?

Students’ academic enablers i.e., engagement (Lee, 2014; Li & Lerner, 2013), interpersonal skills (Gresham, 2016; Valiente et al., 2011), motivation (Everaert et al., 2017; Topcu & Leana-Tascılar, 2018), and study skills (Gormley et al., 2018) are not only considered as the predictors of academic performance but have associations with it (as cited by Strunk, 2014). Hence, investigators are concerned to comprehend the role of academic enabling behaviors in students’ learning, to reduce dropout rates and improve academic performance (Bellanca & Brandt, 2010; Durlak et al., 2011; Zins et al., 2007). Meanwhile, Heckman (2008) claimed that students’ academic enabling behaviors become the causes of academic difficulty that perilous for later life outcomes. However, some researchers considered that gender differences in academic capabilities cannot be neglected (Eccles et al. 1994; Pajares et al., 1999; Pajares & Valiante, 1999, 2001) because of characteristics of gender influence academic enabling behaviors (Demaray & Jenkins, 2011; Elliott et al., 2004: McGinnis, 2009).


Researchers concerned to comprehend the role of academic enabling behaviors in student learning and to seek the effect of gender on students’ academic enablers (Anthony & DiPerna, 2018; Farrington et al., 2012). This study was designed to explore perceptions of students about academic enablers and gender-based differences towards academic enablers (i.e., engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills) with a sample of students enrolled in high schools of Punjab province, Pakistan.

Dr. Nisar Abid
University of the Punjab

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This page is a summary of: Exploring gender‐based difference towards academic enablers scales among secondary school students of Pakistan, Psychology in the Schools, May 2021, Wiley,
DOI: 10.1002/pits.22538.
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