What is it about?

Post-operative bone growth and long-term bone adaptation around the orthopaedic implants are simulated using the mechanoregulation-based tissue-differentiation and adaptive bone remodelling algorithms, respectively. The primary objective of these algorithms was to assess the biomechanical feasibility and reliability of orthopaedic implants. This article aims to offer a comprehensive review of the developments in mathematical models of tissue-differentiation and bone adaptation and their applications in studies involving design optimization of orthopaedic implants over three decades.

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Why is it important?

Despite the different mechanoregulatory models developed, existing literature confirm that none of the models can be highly regarded or completely disregarded over each other. Not much development in mathematical formulations has been observed from the current state of knowledge due to the lack of in vivo studies involving clinically relevant animal models, which further retarded the development of such models to use in translational research at a fast pace. Our study suggested that future investigations involving artificial intelligence (AI), soft-computing techniques and combined tissue-differentiation and bone-adaptation studies involving animal subjects for model verification are needed to formulate more sophisticated mathematical models to enhance the accuracy of pre-clinical testing of orthopaedic implants.


This review article will aid the readers to introspect into the current state of research towards the development of tissue differentiation and bone remodelling schemes. Furthermore, this article has introduced an important aspect of implant design considering studies involving design optimization of implants that will help in developing futuristic designs of orthopaedic implants with higher strength, reliability and applicability. Above all, if nothing else, we hope readers will find this article thought-provoking.

Rajdeep Ghosh
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Read the Original

This page is a summary of: Application of finite element analysis to tissue differentiation and bone remodelling approaches and their use in design optimization of orthopaedic implants: A review, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, August 2022, Wiley,
DOI: 10.1002/cnm.3637.
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