What is it about?

Traditional views of strategy implementation presented a command model, where the senior management create strategy and implement by commanding the member of the organisation to ‘do’ the strategy. This research, a multi-level multiple case study, identified environmental strategy was still developed by senior management, however, the implementation includes the active involvement of middle managers and front-line employees through what is termed Freedom within Framework.

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Why is it important?

Environmental strategies have the potential to be a crucial source of competitive advantage for business. However, little is known about how environmental strategists are developed and transmitted within organisations, and how employees at different levels of the organisation contribute to the implementation process: how are the front-line environmental routines developed and implements from the strategy?


The concept of Freedom within Framework emerged in interviews with senior managers, middle managers, and front-line employees. It was a term that they used, and it was interesting to examine and then develop what this concept meant from a strategic management perspective.

Jeremy Morrow
Auckland University of Technology

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This page is a summary of: The freedom within framework: A multilevel perspective on developing green capabilities through routines in service organisations, Business Strategy and the Environment, July 2020, Wiley, DOI: 10.1002/bse.2579.
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